1. Nick Mabey, Jay Gulledge, Bernard Finel and Katherine Silverthorne, Degrees of Risk: Defining a Risk Management Framework for Climate Security (London: E3G, 2011). As humankind pushes the boundaries of the carrying capacity of the planet, the impact of climate change is going to increase especially on those who live in marginal, vulnerable areas. The consideration of the discursive formation of security issues provides a new perspective to analyse the environmental security discourse. First, to what extent has climate change been conceptualized as a security concern in the past and do these recent initiatives indicate a discursive shift in the interna- It may focus on the impact of human conflict and international relations on the environment, or on how environmental problems cross state borders. Reflections on the role of security experts and the securitization of political issues, Security and environment linkages on the Mediterranean space, Buzan, Barry and Ole Waever (1998) ‘Liberalism and security: the contradiction of the liberal leviathan’, Working Paper 23, Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI), Copenhagen, Commission of the European Communities (2007) ‘An energy policy for Europe’, COM(2007)1 final, Brussels, 10 January, On the brink: from mutual deterrence to uncontrollable war, Council of the European Union (2000) ‘Council resolution on a European space strategy’, C371/02, Brussels, 16 November, Ecological metaphors of security: world politics in the biosphere, Threats from the South? As such, the emphasis in contemporary environmental-security thinking has to be on the global economy and, crucially, on strategies for building societies that are not dependent on fossil fuels, with all of their dangerous climatechange implications. The first explores why the environment has been excluded from security considerations. United Nations Environment Program, GEO5 Global Environment Outlook: Environment for the Future We Want (United Nations Environment Program, 2012). The debate about environmental security has been marginalized in the shadow of the war on terror. 17. The second considers environmental policies as a threat. Through the appeal to security, other logics, which characterize different contexts, can be brought into existence and new actors can gain relevance in security policies. In the case of the environment this suggestion is problematic. Thus, contrary to some currently popular conventional wisdom, the geopolitical context for humanity is not a given and permanent cartographic arrangement. The Stern review typifies the difference between the European approach—that tends to see environmental policy as an opportunity—and the US one—that sees it as a potential threat. The latter was evident in the US position at the 1992 Earth Summit, when George Bush stated that ‘the American lifestyle is not up for negotiation’ (quoted in Lerner 1998, 12). Thomas Homer-Dixon, ‘On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict’, International Security (Vol. For a summary of this discussion see Charles H Green et al., ‘Superstorm Sandy: A Series of Unfortunate Events’, Oceanography (Vol. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. 13. this chapter: climate change, air pollution, water availability and quality, and land-use change. 230, 2013). The infrastructures that allow modern economies to function stretch right around the globe in the form of trade routes and commodity chains; some corporations are already planning to reduce vulnerabilities to climate change precisely by rethinking their supply networks.56. 3 An exception is Dalby (1998). 16. Geopolitics, equity, and environmental security, De Wilde, Jaap (2001) ‘Environmental security’, Unpublished manuscript, The case against linking environmental degradation and national-security, Theoretical aspects of environmental security, On the threshold: environmental changes as causes of conflict, Environmental scarcities and violent conflict, Know your Schmitt: a godfather of truth and the spectre of Nazism, Broadening the agenda of security studies: politics and methods, NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, Reflexive security: NATO and international risk society, International organization for environmental security, Schwartz, Peter and Doug Randall (2003) ‘An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security’, Global Business Network, Emeryville, <, Shea, Jamie (2006) ‘Energy security: NATO's potential role’, NATO Review, 2006:3, <, Conflicts of global ecology: environmental activism in a period of global reach, Global change, environmental security, and the prisoner's dilemma, Towards a theory of securitization: Copenhagen and beyond, Security and solidarity: an anti-reductionist analysis of environmental policy. Although the focus is on the EU interest and security, the means to achieve them are market mechanisms, promotion of liberal order and multilateralism. When it comes to climate change, assumptions of external dangers confronting modern states across borders are simply not the appropriate premise for intelligent discussion of environmental security. 11. Firstly, this debate has legitimized new actors and instruments to develop forms of security governance, which downplay the role of the state and of traditional reactive responses. ), Climate Change and National Security: A Country Level Analysis (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2011). The UN Security Council, at the initiative of the UK, discussed the potential impact of climate change on peace and security for the first time ever (UK Mission to the UN 2007). Richard Matthew, Jon Barnett, Bryan McDonald and Karen O'Brien (eds), Global Environmental Change and Human Security (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010). The discussion of the Anthropocene makes it very clear that appeals to a universal humanity, which used to be dismissed by realists as idealist wishful thinking, now have to be taken seriously as the context for security thinking. Opponents were quick to warn that the term ‘security’ evokes a set of confrontational practices associated with the state and the military which should be kept apart from the environmental debate (Deudney 1990). This helped both to frame environmental threats in more familiar terms to national security experts and to consider the environment as a legitimate threat. That, rather than concerns with peripheral rural instability or environmental migrants, has to be the priority for serious deliberations – both policy and academic – concerning environmental security.57 Peripheral disruptions are symptoms of climate change and the transformations wrought by the global economy, not the cause of the key concerns for environmental-security thinkers. The environment is now being actively recreated by the global urban economy, and the often unforeseen consequences of rural disruptions set in motion by the search for resources to feed cities. And climate change is one of those. 109, Nos. Institutional innovation is also needed urgently. 74, 1989); Joyce Starr, ‘Water Wars’, Foreign Policy (No. One of the most pressing issues of our time, climate change threatens the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. Christian Webersik, Climate Change and Security: A Gathering Storm of Global Challenges (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010). When Margaret Beckett was the UK Foreign Secretary, she promoted an active campaign to prioritize climate change in the international agenda. Meat supplies from distant colonies, once refrigerated ships were perfected in the late nineteenth century, were also a key part of British eating habits. Moreover they outlined how even the US was not able to protect its own citizens and provide effective disaster relief. When Russia cut the gas supply to Ukraine, due to their dispute over gas prices, the amount of gas transiting through Ukraine and destined for European countries fell dramatically (Jon Stern 2006). 14. Alan Robock and Owen Brian Toon, ‘Local Nuclear War, Global Suffering’, Scientific American (Vol. From coastal towns to rural farms to urban centers, climate change poses an existential threat — not just to our environment, but to our health, our communities, our national security, and our economic well-being. Hans Günter Brauch et al. There is a trade-off between the focus on reducing emissions and that on improving resilience and adaptability. The national security implications of climate change are not isolated to any one region, and the impacts will be felt in different ways. Second, Beck challenges the very possibility of having a security logic based on evoking and governing through emergencies. What are the implications of the process of securitization of the climate? Securitization remains a very political moment. Supporting climate security While climate change does not cause violent conflict, in and of itself, it can through its interaction with other social, political and economic factors have negative impacts on international peace and security. 115, No. Nevertheless this debate is more relevant for the political practices it has determined. A similar point has been made by Dalby and Barnett who suggested redefining security and environmental security as human security. While discussions of geo-engineering have been underway for decades, until recently most climate activists and state policy-makers have not wished to engage in them.43 There are a number of good reasons for this, not least the moral hazard argument – namely, the fear that if research into the matter generates apparently affordable and plausible suggestions as to how to control the climate, then the urgency of the need to deal with greenhouse gas emissions will dissipate and policy initiatives to enhance solar-energy replacements for fossil fuels will not come to fruition quickly enough. At the very least, it will constitute an option for those countries whose industrial capabilities permit them to attempt to adjust the climate and either reduce the frequency and scale of extreme events or provide more conducive local conditions. Up by the Copenhagen School security is about the risk of Framing environmental problems and the failure to for! 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