#Kalibangan#AncientHistory#IndusValley. Later, during 1961-69, excavation were carried out by … Kalibangan flourished for at least 450-600 years. Harappa Civilization in Hindi. Incised ware is rare and the incised decoration was confined to the bases of the pans. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) It is located in the banks of the river Ravi; It was the first site to be excavated among all the Indus sites. The weights proceeded in a series, first doubling from 1, 2, 4, 8 to 64 and then in decimal multiples of 16. Archaeologists discovered two platforms with fire altar suggesting the practice of cult of sacrifice. The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. The painted pottery is of red and black colours. Presence of residential and non-residential buildings. See all quizzes › Go to topic › Question 2 How many symbols were used in Indus Valley writing? Terracotta seals found at Mehargarh were the earliest precursors of the Harappan seals. Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay. Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and is uniformly sturdy and well baked. It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid system, drainage system and the like. Geographical extent of Indus Valley Civilization. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. 29. They also invented the device of a cart to harness the labour force of the animals to the production of man’s utility. The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization. Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. Also, it has come to be called the “Harappan Civilization” after the … Metalworkers, shell -ornament makers and bead maker’s shops have been discovered here also. It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the corners and in the longer sides. The script of the Indus Valley Civilization is A. Kharosthi B. Undeciphered C. Brahmi D. Tamil. It must have served as the main seaport of the Indus people. The earliest evidence of surgery was found from Kalibangan. It was the first Indus site to be discovered and excavated in 1921. The Harappans worshipped Pashupati Shiva in his actual form as well as in the representative form as Linga, worship of mother goddess, worship of trees, animals; serpents were all adopted by Hinduism. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. At that time the ASI was conducting excavations at Harappa, but they were unaware of the significance of the ruins. Mortimer Wheeler pointed out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans. (2012), the slow southward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the Indus Valley villages to develop by taming the floods of the Indus and its tributaries. Below the citadel in each city lay a town proper. Chanhudaro Suktagendor Banawali History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. The numerous specimens of pottery, seals, bracelets etc reveal that arts and crafts florished. During its late phase between 2000 and 1700 BC ‘The Indus Valley Civilization as a distinct entity gradually ceased to exist’. The Indus Valley script included over 400 symbols. It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. The workers lived together in small quarters near the factory. The Indus Valley city of Kalibangan was excavated in the 1960s. Harappan city with three divisions namely-citadel, middle town and lower town was at Dholavira. Various causes have been suggested for this. In Mohenjo daro there is also a large building which appears to have been the house of the governor. Various causes have been ascribed for its weakening and then decay: Increase in rainfall, earthquake, decrease in fertility of soil, floods, Aryan invasion, disease etc. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of Mohenjodaro. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. Also known as the Harappan civilization, it dates back to 2500 years ago. The only other Indus site where rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) is located on the left bank of the Ravi. When one thinks of the world’s first cities, Sumer, Memphis, and Babylon are some of the first to come to mind. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. Sutkagendor in Baluchistan, near river Dashta 4. Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. It spreads over the region of Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, U.P, Gujarat and some parts of South India. Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). were the most prominent cities of this civilization. But there is very little evidence on this opinion. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. The approach followed by Kinnier-Wilson is to find analogies between Harappan and Sumerian signs.S R Rao has produced a different attempt to read the script as containing a pre-Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-European family. Next Question > 3,000. Below it is an animal with a short thick tail which can be a fox according to S R Rao. The Indus civilization was originally called Harappan civilization after this site. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. (c) Kalibangan was located on the bank of river Ghaggar. So Indus valley civilization was initially called as Harappan civilization. It has given the substantiation of both pre-Harappan culture in the lower layer and Harappan Civilization in the upper layer. It is surrounded by verandas on four sides. It is distinguished by its exclusive fire altars and is considered as worlds earliest indicated ploughed field. Leg bone of elephant was found at Kalibangan. Jha claims to have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals. The camel was rare and horse was not known. He also finds close connection between the Brahmi and the Indus script. Surkotada is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. Kalibangan. Mohenjodaro is the largest of all the Indus cities and has a population estimated to between 41,000 and 35,000. Certain trees seem to have been treated as sacred such as papal. Evidence of sea and river transport by ships and boats in several seals and terracotta models have been found apart from the dockyard at Lothal. Plants, trees and pipal leaves are found on pottery. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. Copper rhino, copper chariot and copper elephant found at Daimabad. They believed that there was life after death because the graves often contained household pottery, ornaments and mirrors which might have belonged to the dead persons and which it was thought he or she might need after death. Proper Town planning in all Indus valley cites except few such as Kalibangan. Situated in Gujarat it is the latest Indus city discovered in India and also one of the largest sites of the civilization. The plain ware is usually of red clay with or without a fine red slip. In the citadel the most impressive buildings were the granaries which were store -houses. There are many unsolved problems relating to the Indus Valley Civilization. 27. (Q.19) In 2014, with the discovery of additional mounds, which of the following Became the largest Indus Valley Civilization site? Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization, Religion in the Indus Valley Civilization, History of India, History of Ancient India, Medieval History of India, Modern History of India, History Notes. It is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. In the beginning, it was called “The Indus Valley Civilization”, due to the discovery of more and more sited far away from the Indus valley this civilization was later named “Indus Civilization”. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization: So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali A second figure of comparable size also comes from Mohenjodaro. If the focus then shifts to India, then Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro will undoubtedly come up, but after that, India’s other ancient cities are often overlooked. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. Some historians suggest that the first urban civilization came to an end around 1700 BC because its numerous small settlements grew beyond their natural limits leading to the mismanagement of natural resources. The main sites like Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira are featured below with their respective specialities. Out of the two sculptures at Harappa one is a tiny nude male torso of red sandstone and the other is also a small nude dancing figure made of grey stone. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Banawali, Rakhigarhi and Dholavira were some of the important sites of the Harappan civilization. The people lived a very comfortable life in well built houses and baths. Weights and measures which were very accurately graded point to a very high degree of exchange. 4. In addition to this we come across numerous symbols of the phallus and female sex organs made of stone which may have been objects of worship. Brooke further notes that the developmen… The best specimen among the stone sculptures of Mohanjodaro is the steatite image of a bearded man wearing an ornamented robe. Near the granaries were the furnaces where the metal workers produced a variety of objects in metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. Representations of ships are found on seals found at Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Indus Valley Civilization-Lothal and Kalibangan Get top class preparation for IAS right from your home: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus : point-by-point for high retention. In Harappa the Granary was outside the Fort. Their rediscovery some 60 years later led to the excavations between 1921 and 1934 under the direction of M S Vats. The granaries here are located outside the citadel but immediately next to it in the west. 2. Lal Mahal of Pune is one of the most famous monuments of Pune. The seal immediately brings to our mind the traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva. The Aryans were more skilled at warfare and were powerful than the Harappans. He sought help from Sir John Marshall of the Archaeological Survey of India. It was not the Aryans who brought civilization to India which is rather untenable stand taken by Indo-Germanic scholars who seem to think that anything good in the world could have come from Aryan Race. There is also present an oblong multipillared assembly hall and a big rectangular building which must have served administrative purposes. Most of the writing is from left to right and not the other way. The Kalibangan pre-historic site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist (1887–1919). The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. Further evidence indicates that they continued well into the second millennium B.C. In the Lothal port, there was a dockyard which was 216 mtrs in length and 37 mtrs in breadth. Majority of these sculptures are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster. The vast mounds at Harappa were first reported by Masson in 1826 and visited by Cunningham in 1853 and 1873. Important Sites • In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Sir John Marshall the eminent Indologist opines that the civilization revealed at these two places leads one to the inference that it is not an incipient one but had begun ages earlier with many millennia of human endeavour behind it. It has evidence of having both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Another remarkable contribution of the Harappan people was the cultivation of cotton. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. Indus Valley Civilization GK / General Studies Test with multiple choice questions (MCQs) for UPSC, Civil Services, SSC, Banking, UPPSC, RPSC, KPSC, KAS, … The Harappan civilization was the first urban civilization of the Indian subcontinent. It is also called the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of its first discovered site. Absence of temples of special places of worship except few altars at some sites. Spinning and weaving of cotton and wool, pottery making chiefly red clay with geometric designs painted in black, bead making from clay, stone, paste, shell and ivory, seal making, terracotta manufacture and brick laying. There are two main arguments as to the nature of the language that it belongs to the Indo-European or even Indo-Aryan family or that it belongs to the Dravidian family. 28. 5. The term “Indus Valley Civilization” was first used by John Marshall. Polychrome pottery is rare and mainly comprised small vases decorated with geometric patterns mostly in red, black and green and less frequently in white and yellow. A seated figure of a male god carved on a small stone seal was also found. Located at the centre of the citadel it is remarkable for beautiful brick work. The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the later civilization. It is a Shaivite place of offering worships with idols and rock-cut images of Lord Shiva and other Hindu deities. Apart from Lothal in Gujarat, the three Harappan sites on the Makran coast – Sutkagendor, Sotkako and Khairia kot have been generally considered to have been posts in the maritime links with the Gulf and Mesopotamia. Goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold and precious stones and metal workers made tools and implements in copper and bronze. Kalibangan, ancient site of the Indus valley civilization, in northern Rajasthan state, northwestern India.The site contains both pre-Harappan and Harappan remains, and therein can be seen the transition between the two cultures.Although the pre-Harappan culture worked copper and produced pottery, it had no writing system, and its ruins lack the orderly layout and use of … In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. Archaeologists made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappa periods, had knowledge of medicine and surgery. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. In fact, Tessitori was the first person to recognize that the ruins we… Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. It is the third excavated cityof Harappan sites and the earliest town destroyed by earthquake. Four unique bronzes of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot each weighing 60 kgs from the recently excavated site of Daimabad have thrown further light on the bronze work of the Harappans. Geometrical patterns, circles, squares and triangles and figures of animals, birds, snakes or fish are frequent motifs found in Harappan pottery. It might have served the purpose of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India. The language of the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the script is read. In the lower town a particular building identified by Wheeler as the temple has a monumental entrance and twin stairways leading to a raised platform on which was found one of the rare stone sculptures of a seated figure. Stock breeding was important in Indus culture. The artworks of Indus valley Civilization are extremely realistic in the portrayal of human and animal figures. The Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and uniformly sturdy and well baked. Sir John Marshall says that nothing that we know of in other countries bears any resemblance in point of style to the models of rams, dogs or the intaglio engravings on the seals-the best of which are distinguished by a breadth of treatment and a feeling for line and plastic form that have hardly been surpassed in glyptic art. The Harappan people traded with the people of Sumer and with the towns lying along the Persian Gulf. The Harappan civilization contributed towards the advancement of Mathematics. The artworks of the Indus valley civilization embrace Sculptures, seals, pottery, gold ornaments, terracotta models, etc. 3. There were 27 blocks of solid blocks of solid bricks in granary. Indus Valley Civilization is the one of the oldest ancient civilizations of the world.Indus River Valley Civilization was discovered by the archaeologists in the 1920s. In the last phase of Mohenjodaro, men and women and children were massacred in the streets and houses. ; It flourished in the Bronze Age (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) along the Indus River (hence called Indus Valley Civilization) and … Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Main types of seals are the square type with a carved animal and inscription and rectangular type with inscription only. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Next Question > Quiz yourself on the Indus Valley civilization! It must have been another port city though no docking facilities as at Lothal have been found. A few bronze sculptures have also been discovered at Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Chanhudaro and Daimabad. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Banawali, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chahundaro, etc. Sir John Marshal, Lambrick and E.J.H Mackay suggest that the decline of the Harappan civilization was mainly due to the vagaries of the Indus River. A number of stone sculptures have been discovered at Mohenjodaro, two at Harappa, one at Dabarkot and one at Mundigak (Afganistan). Its floor is made of burnt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. Harappans used weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes. Many ancient scripts like Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan. Over 400. In this article, we have discussed some of the important points of Indus Valley Civilization for the UPSC exam. Others attribute it to some kind of depression in the land which caused floods. A specimens of images made of both stone and metal have been discovered. The common features of all the Indus valley civilizations are as follows: 1. Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age Civilization that flourished between 2500-1750 BC in the north western parts of India and present-day Pakistan.. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. The merchant class contributed to the general prosperity and trade contacts seem to have been established with the Sumerian and Mesopotamian civilization of those times. Others point out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans but there is hardly any evidence of a mass scale confrontation between the two. The glazed Harappan pottery is the earliest example of its kind in the ancient world. The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. The town was extremely well planned. According to Giosan et al. Kalibangan was located on a different river from the other major Indus Valley Civilization cities, and its river suffered a fate that led to the end of the city. Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. But it had the most efficient civic administration and effective town planning system. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. An attempt has been made by Natwar Jha a palaeographist and Vedic scholar who says that script is syllabic that is no vowels are written. Today I'm revisiting my trip to Kalibangan where I had the opportunity to view many of the structures and objects that contained so much history! He also refers to the presence of few fish on the ground. Harappa in western Punjab, near river Ravi 2. Copyright © Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. Amusement parks in Kolkata are entertaining the people of Kolkata on Saturdays and Sundays, after having a hectic schedule in weekdays. Use of standard weight… In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. The streets were all well planned and drains regularly drained out. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist and linguist.After Independence in 1952, Amlānand Ghosh identified the site as part of Harappan Civilization and marked it for excavation. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received here. Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago. Since no word in these languages begins with a vowel the writing does not create any problems in comprehension. The arts of the Indus valley civilization came throughout the last half of 3000 BCE. The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool. The Mohenjodaro, the length of the Great Bath was 12 mtrs, breadth was 7mtrs and depth was 2.5 mtrs. Name the oldest Indian civilization. Indus-Valley Civilization was contemporary to the Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Egyptian Civilization. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION SITES So far nearly 1000 sites of nearly, mature and late phases of the Indus Civilization are known in the sub-continent. The numerical and decimal system was evolved here which made remarkable contributions towards Vedic mathematics. Features of Indus Valley Civilization. But the number of the sites belonging to the mature phase is limited, and of them only half a dozen like Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhu-daro and Banwali can be regarded as cities. Knobbed pottery was ornamented on the outside with knobs. 1. A well laid drainage system kept the cities clean. Important centers of Harappan Civilization are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhingarhi, Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro, etc. It was chiefly made and consists of both plain and painted ware and plain variety being more common. They also held the bull sacred. According to Rajaram the script is both pictorial and alphabetic; alphabets are favoured to the pictures in the later stages. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. He was doing some research in ancient Indian texts and was surprised by the character of ruins in that area. It is located within the citadel and next to the Great Bath. Kalibangan is a part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in present Hanumangarh district. Historians have different opinions regarding the causes of the decay and disappearance of the Harappan culture. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as galzed, polychrome, incised perforated and knobbed. Kalibangan, Rajasthan, Ancient Cities of Indus Valley Civilization. Ans. They are a series of brick platforms forming the basis of two rows of six granaries each measuring 50 x 20 feet . Another favourite motive was tree pattern. The potters also worked in this part. The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro is the most important public place measuring 39 feet (length) x23 feet (breadth) x8 feet (depth). The streets were very wide and the houses built of burnt bricks lined both sides of the street. This is contrary to the currently held view that all alphabetic writing descended from Phoenician in the late second millennium BC. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. Each city was divided into the citadel area where the essential institutions of civic and religious life were located and the residential area where the urban population lived. Several methods were used by people for the decoration of pottery. Another well-known building was the Great Bath. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Answers QUESTIONS Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs)& Answers 1 Mohenjodaro is also called as : A mound of the Great B mount of the Survivors C mount of the Living D mount of the Dead Answer: mount of the Dead 2 Identify the site where the Great… Join The Discussion This is … At Kalibangan the lanes and roads of the city were built in a definite proportion. A trip to Mohenjo daro museum. Historians are of the view that the decline of the Indus Civilization was not the result of a single event; it was a slow decline and a result of combination of factors. Numerous articles used as weights have been discovered. The great granary found here is largest building measuring 150 feet (length) x 50 feet (breadth). It was only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. The excavation work was carried by R.S Bisht and his team in 190-91. Kalibangan. It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid pattern, drainage system and elaborates fortification. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. 2. Within the lower town there are some barrack like groups of single -roomed tenements at Mohenjodaro. Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati River.
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